Wednesday, 29 July 2015

The speech.

Speech to ISNIE: The Task of the Society

Opening Address to the Annual Conference
International Society of New Institutional Economics
Washington, DC, USA
September 17, 1999

Ronald Coase
It is a great pleasure for me to take part in the Third Annual Meeting of the International Society for New Institutional Economics. It is a great occasion for all of us, and for economics. What I have decided to talk about is the task of our Society. What I will be giving you are my personal views. They may not commend themselves always to other officers of the Society. Indeed, I’m fairly sure they won’t. But there are two distinctive features of our Society about which no one will dispute.

First of all, we are a society with a mission and that mission is to transform economics. When I speak of economics, I have in mind mainstream economics as expounded in countries in the West and particularly what is called microeconomics or price theory. Our mission is to replace the current analysis with something better, the New Institutional Economics as it has been termed by our President-elect, Oliver Williamson. I have no doubt that we will accomplish our mission. But there is still the question of how we are going to do it. This I will discuss later.

The second distinctive feature of our Society is that it is an international society. It is not an American society that foreigners can join. Our Society is truly international as is made clear by the countries of origin of presenters of papers at this meeting as well as their subjects, and of course, by the composition of our membership. I have no doubt that our international character will prove to be a great source of strength. We will be able to draw on the experience and the talent in countries all over the world. This is particularly important for the New Institutional Economics since if we are to understand the effect of different institutional arrangements on the working of the economic system, the obvious way to do this is to enlarge our studies beyond a single country and to compare what happens in different countries with differing arrangements.

It is a great pleasure to me that, through the generosity of the Earhart Foundation, so many from countries in transition from a command to a market economy have been able to attend this meeting. Theirs is an unenviable task but one which merits our support. I am reminded of a tale told to me by Frank Paish, a colleague at the London School of Economics. He was once walking in the country in England and he asked a countryman how he could get to a certain place. The countryman replied, after considerable thought, "If I were going there, I wouldn’t start from here." That’s how I feel about the plight of our members in the countries in transition to a market economy. We are certainly going to learn a great deal from their experience about what the requisites are for an efficient market system. And I hope that in some way our discussions will be of help to those in countries in transition who have to tackle this formidable task.

Let us return to our mission. Economics, over the years, has become more and more abstract and divorced from events in the real world. Economists, by and large, do not study the workings of the actual economic system. They theorize about it. As Ely Devons, an English economist, once said at a meeting, "If economists wished to study the horse, they wouldn’t go and look at horses. They’d sit in their studies and say to themselves, ‘What would I do if I were a horse?’" And they would soon discover that they would maximize their utilities. What has happened, as Harold Demsetz explained, is that economists have been fascinated by Adam Smith’s great insight — that the economic system could be coordinated by a system of prices without the need for the existence of a plan. And it is fascinating. As Hayek has said, it mobilizes that diffused knowledge that exists throughout the world. If people in Singapore learn something about a commodity that causes them to want to use more of it than they have in the past, they enter the market, the additional demand drives up the price, and consumers in Sweden, Spain, and other places reduce their consumption so that consumers in Singapore, of whom they are completely unaware, may consume more.

But this is not the end of the story. The higher price which emerges for this commodity makes it profitable for resources previously engaged in the production of quite different commodities to be used to increase its supply. This decrease in the supply of these quite different commodities increases their price, and consumers of these commodities in Germany, the United States and Burkina Faso reduce their consumption of them, which moderates the price rise experienced by consumers in Sweden and Spain and makes possible a smaller reduction in their consumption than would otherwise be the case. It’s a wonderful system. Roy Harrod, who attended Edgeworth’s  

  If we are to understand the effect of different institutional arrangements on the working of the economic system, the obvious way to do this is to compare what happens in different countries with differing arrangements.  

lectures, used to tell how Edgeworth, when he reached the point in his lectures at which price equated supply and demand, would pause so that he and the class could savour this magic moment. But by stopping their analysis at this point, economists fail to answer one fundamental question: what determines what goods and services are traded on markets and therefore priced? What determines the flow of real goods and services and therefore the standard of living?

We can start to answer this question by going back to Adam Smith. He explained that the productivity of an economic system depends on specialization (he called it the division of labour) but as is obvious there can only be specialization if there is exchange, and whether exchange is possible depends on the costs of exchange (transaction costs as they have come to be called). Here we have to leave Adam Smith since, apart from his discussion of why the use of money is better than barter, he does not, if my memory serves me, discuss the subject. However, we know that the costs of exchange depend on the institutions of a country — the legal system (property rights and their enforcement), the political system, the educational system, the culture. These institutions in effect govern the performance of the economic system. This is the basic reason why the New Institutional Economics is so important and why, if we are to achieve our objective, we have to enlist the help of lawyers, political scientists, sociologists, anthropologists and other social scientists. This, of course, is what we are going to do in our Society. The entry of economic analysis into the other social sciences has been termed economic imperialism. We are engaged in a completely different enterprise — enlisting the help of those in the other social sciences to enable us to understand better how the economic system works.

The need for a shakeup in economics is demonstrated, so far as I am concerned, by its static character. It is still the subject that Adam Smith  

Economists fail to answer one fundamental question: What determines what goods and services are traded on markets and therefore priced? What determines the flow of real goods and services and therefore the standard of living?  

created. We have formalized it, elaborated it, corrected errors, changed its emphasis, but essentially it is the same subject. Physics has been completely transformed since Newton and chemistry since Lavoisier, but not economics since Smith.

The static character of economics can be made crystal clear by comparing economics and biology. Economists take pride in the fact that Darwin was influenced by Malthus — and he was influenced also, as I learned from Stephen Jay Gould, by Adam Smith. But contrast what has happened in biology since Darwin with what has happened in economics since Adam Smith or Malthus. Biology has been transformed. In The Economist earlier this month (the issue of September 4th) it was stated: "Biology is rapidly becoming as ‘hard’ a science — in all senses — as physics." Biologists have not rejected Darwin — evolution is still the core of the subject — but they look at biological processes in a completely different way. Similarly, I am not rejecting Adam Smith. We should not abandon his great insights. But I do advocate changes that will ultimately transform economics from a "soft" science into a "hard" science and in bringing this about I expect our Society to play a major role. It may seem strange that I am hoping to transform a soft science into a hard science by linking it with subjects which by repute are even softer than economics. But there is no other way. We have to take account of the effects of the legal system, the political system, etc. And if my impression is correct, their theories often have a stronger empirical base than is usual in economics. Of course, one would also hope that those social scientists attracted to the New Institutional Economics would be those who believed in rigour. To those who may feel offended by what I have said about the other social sciences, I would like to quote to you what I said about law in the Simons lecture on "Law and Economics at Chicago" in 1992. "Ernest Rutherford said that science is either physics or stamp collecting, by which he meant, I take it, that it is either engaged in analysis or in operating a filing system. Much, perhaps most, legal scholarship has been stamp collecting. Law and economics is likely to change all that…."

The great triumph of modern biology was the discovery by Watson and Crick of the structure of DNA. But to think of its discovery simply in terms of their work is to ignore that it was the culmination of the work of many people over many years. Horace Judson at the end of his survey of the history of modern biology has this to say: "Biology has proceeded not by great set-piece battles, but by multiple small-scale encounters — guerrilla actions — across the landscape. In biology, no large-scale, closely interlocking, fully worked out, ruling set of ideas has ever been overthrown…. Revolution in biology, from the beginnings of biochemistry and the study of cells, and surely in the rise of molecular biology and on to the present day, has taken place not by overturnings but by openings-up."1  

I think this resembles exactly what I believe will happen in economics. The influence of the New Institutional Economics will be exerted in the various sub-disciplines of economics. Guerrilla actions will take place, which will result in the New Institutional Economics dominating first one and then another of these sub-disciplines, as indeed is beginning to happen. When this process has gone on for some time, the leaders of our profession will find themselves Kings without a Kingdom. There will be no overturning, but in Judson’s words, an opening-up. We will not replace price theory (supply and demand and all that) but will put it in a setting that will make it vastly more fruitful.

I think we can take heart from what Francis Crick has said about developments in modern biology in his book What Mad Pursuit. I will quote some of the things he has said. They seem to me very relevant to any discussion of our plans and projects because we are dealing with a subject which has been extraordinarily successful in modern times, in contrast to economics, where the performance has, in my view anyway, been somewhat dismal. I like what Crick says because he stresses the pitfalls in theoretical approaches and the need for empirical work.

As you probably know, progress in biology was greatly helped by the movement of physicists into molecular biology. This is what he says: "In nature, hybrid species are usually sterile, but in science the reverse is  

In economics our choice of theories will only be fruitful if guided by empirical work.  

often true. Hybrid subjects are often astonishingly fertile, whereas if a scientific discipline remains too pure it usually wilts."2 This bodes well for us since the New Institutional Economics is a hybrid subject if ever there was one. So this should give us a lot of encouragement. Certainly the entry of economists into the study of law has had a very beneficial effect. And I would expect that the intermingling of these other social sciences with economics would exert a powerful, and beneficial, influence on the development of economics.

Crick also says, "In research the frontline is almost always in a fog."3 This is inevitable since the frontline is always dealing with unsolved problems, with  

We do not know, for the most part, what is true or what is false, what is significant and what is not, nor the character of the interrelations of various parts of the institutional structure of the economy. It is our aim to find out.  

the data either unavailable or seemingly inconsistent. So we shouldn’t feel discouraged if we are in a fog. The job, after all, of the frontline is to dispel it. Of course, to be in a fog is not necessarily a sign that you are in the frontline.

Then again Crick says: "[I]t is virtually impossible for a theorist, by thought alone, to arrive at the correct solution to a set of biological problems…. The best a theorist can hope to do is to point an experimentalist in the right direction...."4 This is, for example, what the concept of transaction costs does. It does not of itself solve any problems but it does suggest what should be looked at to find the solutions.

Crick also says this: "It is all too easy to make some plausible simplifying assumptions, do some elaborate mathematics that appear to give a rough fit with at least some experimental data, and think one has achieved something. The chance of such an approach doing anything useful, apart from soothing the theorist’s ego, is rather small...."5 I think you know why I like this quotation.

Finally: "The basic trouble is that nature is so complex that many quite different theories can go some way to explaining the results....[W]hat constraints can be used as a guide through the jungle of possible theories? It seems to me that the only useful constraints are contained in the experimental evidence."6 What this comes down to in economics is that our choice of theories will only be fruitful if guided by empirical work.

What does all this mean for our Society? How are we to find our way through the mass of information such as is revealed by the papers presented at this meeting? How are we to emulate the triumphs of modern biology? How are we to convert the New Institutional Economics into a hard science?  My answer  

To discover even roughly how the institutional structure of production and exchange works will take a long time – but it will be a most interesting journey.  

to these questions is essentially Hayekian. I do not think that as a society we should attempt to plan what members should do. We do not know, for the most part, what is true or what is false, what is significant and what is not, nor the character of the interrelations of various parts of the institutional structure of the economy. It is our aim to find out. We can make suggestions. We can help. But to reach our goal, it is better that members should be free to choose the problems they work on. And because of this we should be tolerant of opposing views. Sidney Webb, a founder of the London School of Economics, a socialist and later someone who was taken in by Joseph Stalin (in which he had a large company), said, and he was a good scholar, that research consisted of shooting arrows into the air to find out where the targets were. This means that we should leave people free to shoot their arrows into the air, and those arrows that find no targets are nonetheless extremely useful.

Of course, to discover even roughly how the institutional structure of production and exchange works will take a long time — but it will be a most interesting journey. But we do need to create an esprit de corps to sustain us on the journey. In my talk at the first meeting of our Society, I quoted Tolstoy’s description in War and Peace of Kutuzov, who led the Russian troops in battle against Napoleon’s invading army. I will do so again:  
       From long years of military experience he had learned, and
       with the wisdom of old age he had recognized that one man
       cannot guide hundreds of thousands of men struggling with
       death, that the fate of battles is not decided by the orders
       given by the commander-in-chief, nor the place in which the
       troops are stationed, nor the number of cannons, nor of killed,
       but by that intangible force called the spirit of the army, and
       he followed that force and led it as far as it lay in his power.
Our success does not depend on the number of papers written nor the number of citations nor the number of prizes gained by our members. It depends on the spirit of the Society. We have made a good start.

1 Horace Freeland Judson, The Eighth Day of Creation: Makers of the Revolution in Biology, New York: Simon and Schuster (1979), p. 612.
2Francis Crick, What Mad Pursuit: A Personal View of Scientific Discovery, New York: Basic Books (1988), p. 150.
3 Ibid., p. 35.
4 Ibid., pp. 109-110.
5 Ibid., pp. 113-114.
6 Ibid., p. 141.

Note: This speech was the opening address to the annual conference of the International Society for New Institutional Economics, delivered in Washington, D.C. on September 17, 1999. It is reprinted with permission from the Newsletter of the International Society for New Institutional Economics, Volume 2, Number 2 (Fall 1999).

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10 th,ICT: New Delhi: Dr APJ Abdul Kalam, known as the 'missi...

10 th,ICT: New Delhi: Dr APJ Abdul Kalam, known as the 'missi...: New Delhi: Dr APJ Abdul Kalam, known as the 'missile man' of India, and also endearingly called the 'People's Presiden...

Tuesday, 28 July 2015

Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam has been called 'The People's President' many times in the media and by the masses. He has given several speeches that have inspired everyone, especially students.

Today, as an ode to the late ex-president of India, we bring to you 8 of his most inspiring quotes:

1. Man needs his difficulties because they are necessary to enjoy success.
2. When we tackle obstacles, we find hidden reserves of courage and resilience we did not know we had. And it is only when we are faced with failure do we realise that these resources were always there within us. We only need to find them and move on with our lives.
3. My message, especially to young people is to have courage to think differently, courage to invent, to travel the unexplored path, courage to discover the impossible and to conquer the problems and succeed. These are great qualities that they must work towards. This is my message to the young people.
4. War is never a lasting solution for any problem.
New Delhi: Dr APJ Abdul Kalam, known as the 'missile man' of India, and also endearingly called the 'People's President', passed away in Shillong on Monday evening after he collapsed while delivering a lecture at the IIM-Shillong, plunging the entire country in gloom.
Here are some interesting events of his life, which are largely unknown to the public:
  • Before becoming the president, Kalam, acknowledged as the driving force behind India's quest for cutting-edge defence technologies, used to stay in a one-room flat.
  • During his childhood days, Dr Kalam, had three close friends Ramanadha Sastry, Aravindan and Sivapraksan. All three were from Hindu Brahmin families.
  • The highest priest of Rameswaram temple Pakshi Lakshmana Sastry was a very close friend of Kalam's father.
  • Dr Kalam was very fond of respected doyen of Carnatic music MS Subbulakshmi. The vocalist too had deep respect for Kalam and often served him food she cooked with her own hands. They ate sitting in tradition manner - squatting on the floor and eating off banana leaves.
  • Kalam liked to have south Indian food, especially 'idlis'.
  • Though a nominated president can avail free air tickets for his relatives attending swearing-in ceremony at the Rashtrapati Bhawan, Kalam, who led a modest life, chose not to avail such privileges and paid for 2nd AC train tickets for kin.
  • Once during an event, the country's first bachelor president, Kalam refused to sit on a chair that was designated for him at convocation at BHU because the chair was larger in size than the other chairs!
  • Once, Kalam rejected the suggestion of putting a broken glass on the wall of a building that needed protection because it would be harmful for birds.
  • Once while speaking to around 400 students, Kalam ensured the power cut didn't cause any interruption. He walked right in the middle of the crowd and asked the students to surround him. He then spoke to them with his bare voice and delivered, like always, an inspiring keynote.
  • And, who did ex-president Kalam invite as the "Presidential Guests" to Kerala's Raj Bhavan during his first visit to the state after becoming the president--a road side cobbler and owner of a very small hotel.

Thursday, 23 July 2015

Short stories of Panchtantra

Chourishi Solutions ... Short Stories from Panchatantra ...

Panchatantra 1. THE JACKAL AND THE DRUM Greed is always harmful
Panchatantra 2. THE LAPWINGS AND THE SEA One should always fight against injustice
Panchatantra 3. THE DONKEY AND THE CUNNING FOX Sometimes a cunning argument outwits normal intelligence
Panchatantra 4. THE MARRIAGE OF A SNAKE After rains comes the sunshine
Panchatantra 5. DEATH AND LORD INDRA'S PARROT Everyone who takes birth in this world has to die one day
Panchatantra 6. THE MONGOOSE AND THE BABY IN THE CRADLE One should avoid taking hasty decisions in sensitive matters
Panchatantra 7. THE FOUR FRIENDS AND THE HUNTER A friend in need is a friend indeed
Panchatantra 8. WHY THE OWLS BECAME ENEMIES OF THE CROWS Think twice before you do or say anything
Panchatantra 9. THE VISIT OF THE SWAN Make friends among people who are like you
Panchatantra 10. A POOR BRAHMIN'S DREAM One should not build castles in the air
Panchatantra 11. THE BULLOCK AND THE LION Never befriend a natural enemy
Panchatantra 12. THE TALKATIVE TORTOISE Always listen to friendly advices
Panchatantra 13. THE SAGE AND THE MOUSE However great one may become, one should never forget one's roots
Panchatantra 14. BEWARE OF MEAN FRIENDS Beware of people, who become friendly to fulfil their evil desires. They talk sweetly, but in reality, they are never trustworthy
Panchatantra 15. UNITED WE STAND: DIVIDED WE FALL United we stand: Divided we fall
Panchatantra 16. THE TRICK OF THE CROW Intelligence is greater than strength
Panchatantra 17. THE LION AND THE HARE Intelligence is superior to physical strength
Panchatantra 18. THE LOUSE AND THE BED-BUG Never trust the strangers
Panchatantra 19. THE HUNTER AND THE DOVES Unity is strength
Panchatantra 20. THE FAKE KING One cannot fool all the people all the time
Panchatantra 21. THE BIRD WITH TWO HEADS People living in a family should never quarrel among themselves
Panchatantra 22. THE DONKEY WHO SANG A SONG Think before you act
Panchatantra 23. THE RABBITS AND THE ELEPHANTS Clever move
Panchatantra 24. THE CUNNING JUDGE Tussle over triffle matters may sometimes lead to a certain disaster
Panchatantra 25. THE CAMEL WITH A BELL ROUND HIS NECK Take heed of a good advice
Panchatantra 26. THE LIONESS AND THE YOUNG JACKAL One should always be in ones own company
Panchatantra 27. KING CHANDRA AND THE MONKEY CHIEF Tit for tat
Panchatantra 28. THE ROTATING WHEEL One bird in the hand is better than two birds in the bush
Panchatantra 29. THE PRINCE AND THE SEEDLING Bad temperament doesn't win the hearts of people
Panchatantra 30. THE BAD LADY AND THE WOLF Bad deeds bring bad consequences
Panchatantra 31. HELLO! CAVE Presence of mind is the best weapon to guard oneself in every sphere of life
Panchatantra 32. THE OLD GREEDY CRANE Never be greedy
Panchatantra 33. THE SHEPHERD AND THE WOLF People do not trust a liar
Panchatantra 34. THE KING COBRA AND THE ANTS Even the strong and mighty cannot face the small ones, when in a large number, at a time
Panchatantra 35. THE BEAR AND GOLU AND MOLU A friend in need is a friend indeed
Panchatantra 36. THE MONKEY AND THE CROCODILE At times presence of mind pays well
Panchatantra 37. THE FROG AND THE SERPENT Never look to an enemy for help
Panchatantra 38. THE BRAHMIN AND THE THREE THUGS One should not be carried away by what others say
Panchatantra 39. THE KING AND THE PARROTS A man is known by the company he keeps
Panchatantra 40. THE REVENGE OF THE ELEPHANT Tit for tat
Panchatantra 41. THE LITTLE MICE AND THE BIG ELEPHANTS Sometimes a weak looking person may prove stronger than others
Panchatantra 42. THE LION AND THE WOODCUTTER Beware of cunning people
Panchatantra 43. THE FOOLISH MONKEY AND THE KING A wise enemy is better than a foolish friend
Panchatantra 44. THE HERMIT AND THE JUMPING RAT The wealth does give strength
Panchatantra 45. THE WISE CRAB Never act hastily on your enemy's advice
Panchatantra 46. THE CROW AND THE MONKEY It's better not to advise others in their personal matters
Panchatantra 47. THE STAG AND HIS ANTLERS A beautiful thing might not be useful also
Panchatantra 48. THE DHOBI'S DONKEY Jealousy is harmful
Panchatantra 49. THE FALCON AND THE CROW Never intimate others in a foolish manner
Panchatantra 50. THE WOLF AND THE CRANE Be careful of the wicked people
Panchatantra 51. WHO WILL BELL THE CAT? Making a plan is one thing, but executing it is something entirely different
Panchatantra 52. THE PEACOCK AND THE FOX Presence of mind outwits cunningness
Panchatantra 53. THE FOOLISH JACKAL Never loose yours senses out of greed
Panchatantra 54. THE DONKEY AND THE LEOPARD'S SKIN You cannot fool all the people all the time
Panchatantra 55. THE JACKAL AND THE ARROW Greed never pays
Panchatantra 56. THE BRAHMIN AND THE SNAKE Unthoughtful actions have no value
Panchatantra 57. THE CLEVER JACKAL Cleverness has it's own advantages
Panchatantra 58. THE GOLDEN BIRD AND THE KING Take a decision after varifying the facts
Panchatantra 59. THE MOUSE AND THE BULL It's no use arguing with a stupid person
Panchatantra 60. THE CUNNING SNAKE Never trust your enemy
Panchatantra 61. THE CAT, THE RAT AND THE HUNTER Friendship with an enemy is a temporary affair
Panchatantra 62. THE FOX AND THE ELEPHANT Even a tyrant has to meet his doom
Panchatantra 63. THE GOLDEN GOAT Keep your eating habits and personal traits a secret
Panchatantra 64. WHEN THE LION CAME BACK TO LIFE Knowledge without common sense is useless
Panchatantra 65. THE OLD WISE CROW Never trust your enemy. Don't allow him into your home
Panchatantra 66. THREE FISH AND THE FISHERMEN Always plan your future intelligently
Panchatantra 67. THE MICE THAT ATE BALANCE Never try to deceive a friend
Panchatantra 68. THE MONKEYS AND THE RED BERRIES It's no use advising idiots. Instead, it might create more troubles
Panchatantra 69. THE GOLDEN BIRDS AND THE GOLDEN SWANS Never act hastily believing a stranger's words. It's also undesirable to be as arrogant as the golden swans were
Panchatantra 70. THE USEFUL THIEF Sometimes bad person also comes in need
Panchatantra 71. DHARAMBUDDHI AND PAAPBUDDHI Bad deeds result always be bad
Panchatantra 72. THE THIEF AND THE SANYASI Wealth may sometimes prove a source of all troubles
Panchatantra 73. DANTILA THE TRADER AND GORAMBHA THE SWEEPER No one is high or low. So we must never insult anyone
Panchatantra 74. THE COW AND THE TIGER Unity is strength
Panchatantra 75. THE FOOL AND THE CROOKS A fool and his wealth don't stay together for a long time
Panchatantra 76. COURTESY Courtesy is the sign of good behaviour
Panchatantra 77. THE MONKEY AND THE LOG Look before you leap
Panchatantra 78. THE MERCHANT'S SON Destiny plays an important role in life
Panchatantra 79. THE POTTER'S TRUTH If you speak the truth, sometimes it may go against you
Panchatantra 80. KING NANDA AND VARARUCHI For most heartable person anyone can do anything
Panchatantra 81. SOMILAKA THE WEAVER Wealth must be used properly. Where necessary it must also be donated
Panchatantra 82. THE DOG IN A FOREIGN COUNTRY Our nation is always welcomed to our nation members whether they cheat to our own nation
Panchatantra 83. THE DEVTA AND THE WEAVER An advice should never be followed blindly
Panchatantra 84. THE FOUR FOOLISH BRAHMINS Theoretical knowledge without the practical experience and commonsense is useless
Panchatantra 85. TWO FISH AND A FROG One should not turn a deaf ear to a friend's advice
Panchatantra 86. THE MERCHANT AND THE BARBER A blind imitation is always dangerous
Panchatantra 87. THE BATS One should avoid fair-weather friends
Panchatantra 88. THE LION'S BAD BREATH One should keep quiet in the times of danger
Panchatantra 89. THE WIND AND THE SUN Persuasion can achieve, what a brute force can't
Panchatantra 90. THE RICH MOHAN AND THE POOR SOHAN Greed is evil. It must be destroyed with shrewdness
Panchatantra 91. THE WOLF AND THE LAMB Any excuse will serve a wicked person
Panchatantra 92. THE GIANT AND THE HELPLESS BRAHMIN It always pays to be alert
Panchatantra 93. THE BRAHMIN AND THE DIAMONDS To sacrifice ones life for others is a great deed
Panchatantra 94. THE GIANT AND THE HORSE THIEF Don't be try to oversmart with anyone & sometimes believe on your mind transactions also
Panchatantra 95. THE VILLAGE MOUSE VISITS TOWN MOUSE Be remember one thing always, we secure only in our home town not any other town
Panchatantra 96. THE THIEF, THE GIANT AND THE BRAHMIN Quarreling on any issue always benefits the others
Panchatantra 97. THE BRAHMIN AND THE DELICIOUS DISHES God doesn't help in sinful acts
Panchatantra 98. BRAHMADATTA, THE CRAB AND THE SNAKE It is advisable to have a companion while moving to an unknown destination
Panchatantra 99. THE PRINCE AND THE BEAR Animals too are lovable and understanding
Panchatantra 100. THE CROW AND THE WATER PITCHER Necessity is the mother of invention
Panchatantra 101. THE HORSE AND THE LION Mind is mightier than body

Competitive Exams ... Quantitative Aptitude...

Tuesday, 14 July 2015

10 th,ICT:  I hope you have a wonderful day and that the yea...

10 th,ICT:  I hope you have a wonderful day and that the yea...:  I hope you have a wonderful day and that the year ahead is filled with much love, many wonderful surprises and gives you lasting memor...
send this message to a friend  I hope you have a wonderful day and that the year ahead is filled with much love, many wonderful surprises and gives you lasting memories that you will cherish in all the days ahead I am very thankful all of you giving me birthday wishes.Be happy and cheerful to go ahead Best of luck for your future.